Occupational Therapy vs. Physical Therapy: What’s the Difference?
A rehabilitation team is a group of professionals who assist following an injury, a hospitalization, or surrounding a surgical procedure. This team is made up of both occupational therapists and physical therapists, who work jointly to help individuals improve independence, regain abilities to engage in regular daily activities, and make modifications to self or environment in order to maximize safety.
A patient receiving physical or occupational therapy treatment may not recognize which type of therapist is treating them, which is why there can be confusion at times between the two professions. This is often because the end goal of these two professions is so similar: to return the patient to the highest level of function in the safest environment possible. Both physical and occupational therapists cater treatment to the specific needs of a patient but have a different lens by which a patient is viewed.
What is the Difference Between the Two?
Let’s compare a few differences below…
- Focuses on all daily tasks or “occupations,” including dressing, bathing, cooking, laundry, driving, mowing the lawn, etc.
- Evaluates the environment in which a person lives to enhance safety
- Recommends occupational therapy exercises and trains on the use of equipment for safety in the home or for personal use to promote independence
- Assesses and modifies treatment accordingly for visual and cognitive impairments
- Modifies routines and schedules to enhance engagement in everyday activities
- Focuses on the body and how it moves – strength, power, tissue restrictions, pain, and more
- Assesses balance and mobility – how to we optimize walking and moving within our environment
- Recommends and trains use of ambulatory devices such as walkers or wheelchairs when needed
- Physical Therapists are movement specialists – how we move, what are the barriers to optimum movement, and how can we restore optimum movement and function
Both OTs and PTs work with neurological impairments and orthopedic problems as well as special populations like pelvic health, vestibular and balance problems, and chronic pain. They both focus on fine and gross motor skills with the ultimate goal of restoring and maximizing function to make tasks easier.
Let’s See How They Work Together
Following a hip replacement, a physical therapist will assess the movement and strength of the hip, the ability to walk with or without a device, and the ability to navigate stairs. An occupational therapist will recommend equipment for the bathroom to increase ease for toileting and showering, review dressing techniques with a leg that has restricted movement, and set up the home to increase ease of navigation.
The Bottom Line
It is important to have both members of the rehabilitation team for enhancing outcomes in daily living, and each profession provides pertinent, yet specialized care to make this happen.
Article by: Luisa Aggio, OTR/L, CHT
Ivy Rehab Network, Progress PT, University City PA